Friday, December 21, 2012

John Hose, London Cordwainer, c.1770

Courtesy, Historic New England
These fashionable but restrained cream silk brocade shoes, with earth-tone, stylized flowers on a patterned ground, were made by a London family of cordwainers. The Hose family shop was located on Lombard Street "at the boot." Several generations of the Hose family practiced skilled shoemaking and their shoes are some of the more elegant ones seen in North American collections.  The upper features an attractive floral silk in browns and greens on off white with green binding and oval toe. A well-proportioned 2.5 inch Louis heel and period buckles (owned by Prudence Jenkins for her wedding in 1778) complete this tasteful ensemble. 

This post is a work in progress as recent correspondence with Hose family descendants and information supplied by the Cordwainers archives is adding exciting new detail and dimension. The author is indebted to Colin Michael Hose, Linda Pardoe and Judith Millidge, of the Worshipful Company of Cordwainers, for sharing their research and perspectives.

The Historic New England catalog information for the shoes notes:    Many eighteenth-century shoes are called buckle shoes because a removable metal buckle was used to fasten the straps along the top. The high heel, round toe, angled side seams, and exuberant floral pattern of this buckle shoe are characteristic of shoes made in the third quarter of the eighteenth century. In eighteenth-century Boston, Massachusetts, as in Philadelphia, PA, Newport, RI and Portsmouth, NH, the latest London fashions were readily available to those who could afford them. These brocade shoes were made in the section of London called Cheapside, known for its textile merchants and shoemakers. Like most shoes of the period, they have no right or left but were made to be interchangeable. The long tabs were intended to be fastened by buckles, which were worn like jewelry and could be transferred from one pair of shoes to another. Buckles could be set with diamonds for the wealthiest wearers, or, like these, made of paste.

The shoe buckles themselves were worn by Prudence Jenkins (b. 1759) at her 1778 wedding to Dr. John Chace in Providence RI. Historic New England also has fragments of Prudence’s brocaded silk wedding dress, which, according to tradition, was purchased in London for a guinea a yard as well as one of her high heeled wedding shoes covered in a green and purple floral brocade. These related objects illustrate that eighteenth century brides either wore their best dress or had wedding clothes specially made for the occasion and did not universally wear white, which was considered a more appropriate color for mourning.

Acc. # 1919.140AB Gift of Miss Mary C. Wheelwright 
Information and photograph courtesy, Historic New England 

For additional examples of work by the Hose family, see collections at Historic Deerfield (left) and the Charleston Museum, discussed in previous posts.

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Stephen Jones: A Season of Hats at the Peabody Essex Museum

A hat makes clothing identifiable, dramatic--and, most importantly, Fashion...they confer a sense of presence and poise to the wearer that, in my mind, cannot be achieved through clothing or other accessories.
Stephen Jones A Personal View
Hats: An Anthology, 2009

The photos throughout this post are perfect illustrations of the transformative nature which hats bring to the wearer, so deftly described by Mr. Jones. Among my favorite images (left), following a November fashion show, the milliner is flanked by Peabody Essex Museum staff members who were the models. "Presence and poise" (and just sheer glee) was in abundance and transmitted to an appreciative audience.

If you are still looking for a special gift, you may want to visit the "hat boutique" at Peabody Essex Museum shop, where you will find something special in all price ranges. Do hurry as a number of milliners work has already sold out!
Director of Merchandising, Lynne Francis-Lunn
 in Stephen Jones
Milliners currently on view include: 
Stephen Jones, London, England
Dinah Makowsky, Memphis, TN
Sarah Havens, Louisville, KY
Denise Shea, Maynard, MA
Eric Javits, New York, NY
Natasha Manolagas, Swampscott, MA
Gwendolyn Gleason, New York, NY/Naples, FL

Thank you to Stephen Jones, Oriole Cullen, Curator, Victoria & Albert Museum, Lynda Hartigan, PEM Chief Curator, Juilette Fritsch, PEM Director of Education, Paula Richter, PEM Curator of Exhibitions, Lynne Francis-Lunn, PEM Director of Merchandising and the many friends, colleagues and staff of the Peabody Essex Museum, for creating a magical season of hats.

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

A Kilt: The Tale of a Plunge

By Jeff Hopper

This is the tale of a plunge.  Two weeks ago a friend in the building trades told me that one of the local lumber companies was closing.  Not so odd given today’s economic climate, but it was one of the last lumberyards in this area that was also a lumber mill.  I used some of their true 2x4’s in work on our circa 1914 house, no need to thicken to modern 2x4’s, these were the real thing with their furred edges.  The same day I heard this I read that the Dalgliesh Tartan Mills,, in Selkirk, Scotland had almost finished their last run in 2011.  The tartan mill was saved, at least for the time being, but the lumber mill was not. 

This is a fashion blog about the old and new so herein hangs the tale.  Learning of the loss of the lumber mill, I ordered 6 yards of tartan to be woven in a slight variation of the Ancient Campbell tartan and a kilt will be made from this weaving.  D.C. Dalgliesh Mills will receive the order some time this autumn and if all goes well the run will be finished in early winter.  Matthew Newsome,, of North Carolina will tailor the kilt in the knife pleat style and it should be finished sometime in the spring.  I’m a Yank so the idea of a kilt is in itself questionable and will be met with some derision, so be it.  I’ve thought about this for a while, but it wasn’t until the lumber mill closed that I realized how dependent we are all on use.  We need to use materials such as lumber or cloth in order for them to exist—no demand, no goods, no market.  I’m not sure how I am paying for this, but it will happen.

Ancient Campbell from D.C. Dalgliesh LTD
I chose a kilt because for the first time in years I need evening attire.  Recently I became a member of our local Athenaeum and there is a formal gathering during the Christmas season.  It’s been awhile since I had a tux and even longer for a set of tails, but I thought why should I settle for either of those when a kilt can be worn.  I have enough Scottish ancestors to at least make the pretense of this move, on top of which when asked, my wife and other women I know all said there was something about a man in a kilt—we’ll leave it at that.  However, it’s more than that.  If I need to dress for the evening, why am I still dressing as my great-great-grandfather would have done?  I understand the kilt has the same limitations, it duplicates a nearly two hundred year old tradition, but it isn’t as pervasive as the black evening attire of the past two hundred years in American-European circles.  I cannot image a man of 1890 wearing the evening attire of a man of 1690, yet somehow we are there.

John Singer Sargent
by Giovanni Boldini circa 1890, private collection 


Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax by Sir Godfrey Kneller, oil on canvas,
 circa 1690-1695. NPG, London
Fashion comes and goes, no news there, and the materials that make fashion possible are just as fleeting.  The other reason for the kilt was the tradition of weaving.  The Black Watch and Stewart tartans will live on in shirts, skirts, jackets, coats, dresses, and all manner of products until we tire of pattern, but the lesser known tartans or plaids only live as long as people use them.  Most cloth and patterns may be timeless, but they are not perpetual—no use, no need.  All right, the Campbell tartan isn’t going away, its other incarnation is Black Watch, but the desire to commission a one-off was still strong.  My tartan will be woven on a 27-inch loom producing a woven selvedge on both sides, with the result of no hem.  (My preference is for a kilt that is tailored to measure, not finished to measure.)  The color choice will be a slight variation of the present ancient Campbell, so in this instance it will be a special weave.  Will this one commission save a weaving house, not possible, but the idea that consumers of fashion should be responsible to the craft of the trade is possible. 
A Dagliesh woven selvedge

So there it is—the plunge, a special weave, a kilt and who knows what else—a floodgate may have opened.  In the end, it’s in honor of my paternal grandmother whose great-great grandfather was born a Campbell in Edinburgh.  She had a lust for life, obtained a degree just as women got the vote, didn’t drink until it was illegal, didn’t smoke until it was rationed, and received a Christmas card for years from her bookie.  How could I not wear a kilt in honor of that woman?  Now go out there and commission someone to create something for you.  It will give future generations something to ponder. 

Guest blogger Jeff Hopper is the Project Director of Blue Tree Publishing House and holds an MA in Museum Studies from Harvard University (2012). This is the first in a series on men's wear and textiles.

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Temperance Pickering Knight’s mid 18th c. Canary Yellow Quilted Petticoat

Among the one of the most striking pieces in the Irma Bowen Collection At the University of New Hampshire Museum is a dazzling canary yellow quilted petticoat. Made of silk, lined with wool and flax, This cheery, warm garment was worn by Temperance Pickering Knight (1731-1770) of Newington, NH. It is a significant survival and not surprisingly at mid-18th century, similar to earlier British-made counterparts.

In addition to the petticoat, there is evidence to suggest that a pair of silk brocade pattens or clogs may also have belonged to her. The style and construction would be appropriate.

The second wife of John Knight, Temperance was married 15 March 1759 at the the age of 28.  Knight ran a very profitable business, operating the ferry between Newington and Dover Point.  This would explain the expensive clothing attributed to Temperance Knight.
After having the opportunity to examine her canary quilted petticoat, I started on a quest to find Temperance Pickering Knight's headstone which I had heard was "embedded" within the expansive mall area of Newington, NH., which is where she was born and married. 

As it turns out, I had actually seen the remains of the small plot, adjacent to an “I Party” store some five years earlier and knew exactly where it was located. The burial site is in a state disrepair and the handful of stones within the borders are barely legible and eroded from the elements and years of past vandalism.  While Temperance's headstone is badly damaged and the upper third severed, there is nonetheless a powerful connection with her through the stone. 

It is possible to make out her name and death date on the the stone despite the damage.  Note the deeply incised and elegant serifed lettering.  

Fashion and costume historians, textile and sewing enthusiasts can applaud the foresight of family members and UNH instructor, Irma Bowen, for the survival of this rare garment. Fortunately, Irma Bowen, began collecting examples of needlework and textiles back in the 1920s for the benefit of her students. The fact that we can actually put a name and a biography with this striking, well-crafted and expensive garment, amplifies its significance tremendously. Knowing an approximate time period when the petticoat was worn and where, a small northern New England community, has attracted the attention of students and costume historians over several decades.

The author thanks Astrida Schaeffer, costume historian and mannequin maker at SchaefferArts, and Dale Valena, Curator, UNH Museum, for making the textiles available.

Descendants have a created a family genealogy which may be found at and a there are a number of key documents at the Rockingham County Probate Records.

For further information on the Bowen Collection and Temperance Pickering Knight and her petticoat, see

Thursday, November 22, 2012

"Deluded by his hypocrisies:" Lady Mary Radclyffe Stanhope Gell (and her shoes)

Possibly worn by Lady Mary Radclyffe Stanhope Gell (d. 1653), these late 17th century shoes are in the collection of the Northampton Shoe Museum.  I long to see these shoes. Without question, they are lovely: blue velvet with lavish silver gilt thread, the embroidery comprising a naturalistic foliate pattern. The contrast between the dark hues of the background and the luminescent quality of the silver thread must indeed be striking - even more so when first completed. They feature the high, elegant heel and narrow toe fashionable during the latter quarter of the 17th century. Ribbons would have tied the lachets across the tongue to secure the shoe, thereby providing another opportunity to capture an onlookers gaze.

As feminine as Lady Mary's shoes may appear to our contemporary eye, a quick look at men's shoes of the time reveals their "masculine" antecedents. Coming out of the French Court of Louis XIV and popular in England following the Restoration of Charles II, men placed high value in their footwear which featured similar luxurious treatment found in women's shoes: gold and silver threads, silk brocades and damask, over sized bows and ribbons and jeweled or paste buckle closures. Men of "standing" wanted to show off their shapely legs and stylish, graceful feet not only through footwear, but also with luxurious hose. This represents quite a change over the centuries - as many women will select high heels over flats to draw attention to legs and derriere. Although by the early 18th century, women were less enamoured of wearing shoes modeled on men's style, the masculine terminology associated with cordwaining persisted.


While Lady Mary's shoes are indeed stunning,  the war ravaged history of the Parliamentarians, Cromwell and ultimately, the Restoration of Charles II (1660) swirling around them is extremely intriguing. Indeed, as layers of historical fact and fiction surrounding Lady Mary's life are peeled back, they could easily constitute a historical  novella.


Lady Mary Stanhope (nee Radclyffe) reportedly died in April 1653 near Covent Garden, London.  If this is in fact the case, this pushes the date the shoes were worn to prior to the current date posited of c. 1660. Lady Mary and Sir John Stanhope (d. May 29, 1638) were married and lived in Elvaston Castle or manor, in Derbyshire. Constructed by Sir John's father in 1633, today it is a 200-acre country park. Lady Mary and Sir John had one son, also named John.

Following her husband's death in 1638 she remarried - this time to his enemy, Sir John Gell (1593-1671). Gell is remembered, among other politically motivated events, for his irascible and unyielding temper and for his ceaseless harassment of Stanhope. Stanhope came under Gell's various attacks while he was Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1634 and was exacting "the obnoxious tax of ship money" on behalf of the "King's arbitrary measures" (Hutchinson, 101)  It is reported that at one point, Gell actually starved out Stanhope's cattle.  Not surprisingly, the union between Lady Mary and Sir John Gell was brief and they separated after just over a year. Clearly, Gell was intent on destroying all he could of the deceased Stanhope - "abducting" his wife or "deluding her with hypocrisies." It is even noted by some historians that he defaced Sir John's effigy in Elvaston Chapel. A complex political figure, Gell also spent time in the Tower of London.

1. Women's shoes, possibly worn by Lady Mary Stanhope, last half of 17th century. Courtesy, Northampton Shoe Museum, # 1994.279

2. Detail, Portrait of Louis XIV, 1701, Hyacinthe Rigaud. Courtesy, Musee de Louvre

3. Men's French silk shoes, c. 1690-1700. Courtesy, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, #06.1344a

4. Portrait of Mary Radclyffe, William Larkin, c. 1610-1613. Courtesy, Berger Collection, Denver Museum of Art.

This striking portrait by Larkin is described on the Berger Collection web site: William Larkin painted some of the most fashionable figures of the Jacobean period. Among them was Mary Radclyffe, the wife of Sir John Stanhope of Elvaston, who rose to prominence as a courtier during the reign of James I. Mary's costume helps us date this portrait quite accurately. Her low-cut dress, closed ruff, simple pearl jewelry, black silk string ties, and feathered hair were all the rage in the first decade of the seventeenth century; but in 1613 the style fell rapidly from fashion. The painting must therefore have been painted just before that date. Behind Larkin's subject are two elaborately draped curtains. He used this device so often that until he was definitively identified in the twentieth century, he was known simply as the "curtain master."

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Trendy Vintage at Shangri-La Boutique, Fort Walton Beach, Florida

On a recent trip to Florida, a lucky parking spot led to a fantastic vintage shopping find at Shangri-La Vintage Boutique (  The experience was memorable from the well-selected sale items to the knowledgable proprietors. I was there with my sisters and we all have different tastes and interests and yet all left satisfied.  In addition to the high quality selection and good condition of the items, the ambience was just right. 

The hats, bags and shoes were all well presented, as you will see in the photos from the boutique. Of particular note, they had an extensive array of vintage men's clothing, including original 1960s Hawaiian bowling shirts.  

My fav: an original Hallmark paper dress, still in its packaging, from the 1960s, which boasted that you could cut it to desired length, wear it for a party and then throw it away. Perfect for travel!

If you visit Fort Walton Beach, Florida, you will find a row of stellar shops including the Cupcakery by the Sea, Hugs & Hissyfits, the Closet Swap (saw a great pair of Louboutins there) and many more.

 Red bow girl's dress panties, Hugs & Hissy Fits

Pancake and bacon cupcakes from the Cupcakery

Thursday, November 8, 2012

Embellishments: Constructing Victorian Detail

A Gown of Midnight Blue Velvet, UNH Museum,
Durham, USA. Note passementerie, cording,
voided velvet, c. 1890s

Available  February 2013


As Charles Frederick Worth (1825-1895), revered leader of the era's most respected and sought after haute couture designs, confided to Harper's Bazar 15 December 1877: 

"A dress should never overpower its wearer. It should merely be an appropriate frame for a charming picture....It isn't every woman who knows how to wear a dress."
The concept for Embellishments: Constructing Victorian Detail originated with a 2012–2013 exhibition of Victorian garments at the University of New Hampshire. Embellishmentsis a fashion time travelers’ armchair tour. In the absence of any narration from those who wore or owned the clothing, consider the historic pieces themselves, dating roughly from the 1870s–1910s, as your guide. 

The book is based on ten Victorian garments—a haute couture tea-gown, English-inspired day and wedding dresses, and an American walking suit, among others.  Follow respected tailor of historic clothing and mannequin maker, Astrida Schaeffer, as she demonstrates the sewing techniques that recreate period embellishments. The publication will be a bookshelf favorite for contemporary designers, costume historians and sewing enthusiasts alike. 

Savor Brian Smestad’s stunning portrait-style photographs of the garments, accompanied by elegant details shots, which illuminate the technique section of the book. Delight in the opportunity Embellishments provides to examine and reinvigorate the Victorian aesthetic through the use of sewn adornment.

Sunday, October 28, 2012

New York Milliner Robert Dudley & the Merrimac Hat Company

Milliner Robert Dudley (1911-1992), for Merrimac Hat Co., c. 1940-45
Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
This fashion post started out as an intense, passing interest and has morphed into something much more - a research journey with no end in sight. (Aren't all research projects that way if you really assess them?) Inspired by the current exhibition at the Peabody Essex Museum (PEM), Stephen Jones Hats: An Anthology (brilliantly and playfully organized by the V & A, the exhibit next traveled to Bard and is now at PEM until February 13, 2013). Colleagues at PEM have kept me apprised of the layers of the exhibition and its rich public outreach: collaborations with Massachusetts-based milliners, a New Hampshire-based hatbox fabricator, the fabulous examples of historic head adornments which were taken from PEM storage and juxtaposed with objects in the permanent galleries, lecture series, gallery talks, how-tos, trunk and fashion shows. You may not think you are a "hat person" but this endeavor will have you looking at "toppers" from a new perspective.

Imagine the delight, then, a few weeks after attending opening events lead by Stephen Jones, co-author, Oriole Cullen and Lynda Hartigan, Chief Curator of PEM, when I stumbled across three modest, but delightful hats from the Merrimac Hat Company (later Corporation) of Amesbury Massachusetts.
Vintage hats from The Collector's Eye,
Stratham, New Hampshire

Amesbury is perhaps best remembered historically for the high-end carriages produced there and exciting transformation are currently underway to celebrate that important manufacturing center. Hat production is less known and yet the Merrimac Hat Company was for some time one of the largest (possibly the largest) hat factories in the United States. In business for a century, it was reported by D. Hamilton Hurd in his 1888 tome The History of Essex Country, that at that time, the factory employed 169 hands, of which 118 were men and 51 were women. The business sold product valued at $283,000 in the mid 1880s.

After taking home the hats, inspection revealed two of the three were labeled from Merrimac. The 100% wool, saffron colored "play topper" is appealing and timeless. 

The most extravagant statement of this small cache, is a bold, unlabeled reprisal of the masculine top hat, here it is softened. Constructed of black velvet, with thick, layered tangerine silk ribbons forming the design, the hat guides the eye upward. As may be see in the 1940s image from the Metropolitan Museum (top), Dudley mastered the challenge of presenting a hat which worked within a masculine archetype but with a feminine twist and appropriate scale. Although the hat pictured below may not be a Robert Dudley confection, it is certainly a hat which would be worn by one with confidence and a bit of panache, and immediately signaled a high-end, trend setting designer. 

The New York-based Dudley designed for Merrimac in the 1940s and 1950s. With several seminal hats in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum and archives, including sketches, at the Fashion Institute of Technology, he was and is, an intriguing figure.

Private Collection, blue velvet hat, c. 1950s
1960s conical "turban." Note use of "vestigial" net
Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art
According to his New York Times obituary: 

Dudley studied at the Eastman School of Music and had come to New York City intent on a career in the theater. He decided instead on a career in millinery after he used an old felt hat to create a new one for a friend. His large clientele included many theater and society figures and he designed hats for several films, including "Rebecca."During the 1940's and 1950's he operated the Chez Robert salon at Saks Fifth Avenue and his own shop, Robert Dudley Originals, on the East Side of Manhattan. Mr. Dudley then became an interior designer and was active in the field until his death.

He died in Manhattan on September 24th, 1992 at age 87. His obituary was published nearly two decades ago on November 4th.

Related on-line articles:

Merrimac Hat Factory, Amesbury, Massachusetts
Full text of Robert Dudley's obituary Dudley; Milliner, 87

Thursday, October 25, 2012

Late 19th c. Child's Four Button Ankle Boot(ie)

This recent find is from the Collector's Eye in Stratham, New Hampshire. A child's four button ankle boot, from the late 19th century, it is fabricated of a very soft, very worn, light brown kidskin. The heel, toe and sole are worn through and abraded. Lined with linen, it is more akin to a bootie than a shoe or boot in that there is no hard sole. It mimics fashionable adult footwear of the time with its ankle height, finished buttonholes and prominent buttons, made possible by the inventions of James Morley, who patented an industrial button-sewing device around 1880, among others. Note the gentle "scalloping" of the extra leather flap at the button placket. The adult version of the high button ankle boot, despite the time consuming lacing of the boots, remained a style statement until about World War I.

Sunday, October 14, 2012

What were they drinking in 1793? Egg Rum & Egg Brandy

Egg Rum and Egg Brandy: The Cold Winter of 1793
On Monday May 20, 1793, there were a number of special alcohol purchases which appear in the Gen. Montgomery Store Daybook. They include postmaster Moses Dow’s 1 quart of Mallago (Malaga) wine, a glass of ginn [sic] and of particular interest, one 1/2 bowl of egg rum.  A few days earlier the purchase of “egg brandy” was noted.  According to food historians, this concoction was related to our contemporary eggnog, being a drink of egg, wine and milk/cream with many historic European antecedents. 
Egg brandy or egg rum as recorded in the Daybook, was in Colonial America somewhat different than its British counterpart in that it substituted the British use of wine for brandy or rum. It was quite popular in the Colonies, especially in the colder parts of the region where the egg beverage (egg, cream or fresh milk and brandy or rum) was rich, tasty, filling and was usually flavored with nutmeg or allspice. In a rural area like Haverhill, the ingredients – fresh cream and eggs, brandy or rum and spices-- would have been readily available. Given the fact that this was served at the Store, it is likely that it was served cold and not warm such as a posset, which required heating and carefully balanced ingredients, as well as appropriate ceramic serving vessels, frequently with a spout.
While it might seem too heavy for serving in late May by contemporary tastes, it was no doubt much lighter in concentration. However, of particular importance in the selection of this variant of “eggnog” was the fact that weather reports for May of 1793 reveal that it was the second coldest May to be recorded (in the North American Review, for example) until the famous cold of 1816, which many referred to as the year “without summer.”  The unusual cold of April and May, which reportedly froze buds and kept the ground hard well past usual planting dates, would have also changed patterns of trade, travel, purchase and even the number of ventures out of doors to the Store. The weather, not surprisingly, changed the routine of daily life not only in Haverhill but throughout New England.
Although contemporary receipt books and accounts appear not to list an egg brandy or rum (most likely because it was an understood, standard beverage) there was a close relationship between them and an eggnog and a syllabub. The creation of a syllabub required time and careful beating of eggs and cream, whereas the preparation of this "egg rum" or "egg brandy" one can easily imagine being created in the store along with the frequently mentioned bowl of grog.  (Grog was also a rum –based beverage, frequently mixed with other spirits or citrus or other juices or diluted.)

From a forthcoming article on General Montgomery and the 1793 Daybook.

Kimberly Alexander, Ph.D.
University of New Hampshire
Durham, NH., USA

Comparative Syllabub Recipes

To make whipt syllabubs

Take a quart of thick cream, and half a pint of sack, the juice of two Seville oranges, or lemons; grate in the peel of two lemons; half a pound of double-refined sugar, pour it into a broad earthen pan, and whisk it well; but first sweeten some red wine, or sack, and fill your glasses as full as you chuse; then as the froth rises take it off with a spoon, and lay it carefully into your glasses, till they are as full as it will hold.
From Charles Carter The London and Country Cook (London: 1749)

A Whipt Syllabub

Take two porringers of cream and one of white wine, grate in the skin of a lemon, take the whites of three eggs, sweeten it to your taste, then whip it with a whisk, take off the froth as it rises and put into your syllabub glasses of pots, and they are fit for use.

From Amelia Simmons American Cookery: or the Art of Dressing Viands, Poultry….Adapted to this Country and All Grades of Life (Albany, 1796)

Further information on the derivation of the term “egg nog” may be found on numerous historic food ways websites and in reproductions of historic cookbooks such as that of Amelia Simmons by Applewood Books.

Images courtesy:
^ Haverhill Historical Society, General Montgomery Store Daybook, 1793
^ Pouring a syllabub, Journal of the Early Americas (see link below for further information)

Great sites to explore:
Colonial Williamsburg: